Iraq’s education sector has faced obstacles for decades due to multiple crises including prolonged conflict, protracted displacement, economic crisis, and subsequent social and political tensions. New crises emerged at the end of 2019 and beginning of this year, including: public discontent and waves of protests that started in October 2019, and the economic repercussions of COVID-19 containment measures in March 2020 coupled with a severe drop in oil prices. These new crises are applying even more pressure on the already fragile education system and affecting access to education. This analysis, which is based on primary data gathered in group discussions involving a variety of operational actors as well as secondary data, illustrates the potential impact on humanitarian needs that these crises are likely to have at individual, family, community and state levels. The analysis also identifies population groups that are likely to be disproportionately affected by these crises.
Methodology and analytical framework
This report is based on a review of publicly available information through a process of data collection, synthesis, and analysis. The report also benefits from inputs given in discussion groups with operational actors working in the Iraqi education sector, and utilises recent assessments on education needs in Iraq. However, there are still information gaps and limitations in this research. The diagram below shows the components of the analytical framework used in producing this analysis. The first tier represents ‘new’ crises that Iraq has faced since October 2019: protests and the COVID19 pandemic.2 The second tier is the existing context, which covers all issues that are aggravating the new crises, but also creating impacts of their own. The third tier is the impact of such crises on the education sector. The impacts of these crises on education fall within four pillars – health, living conditions, social cohesion and protection, and humanitarian and development operations. The final tier, which is the end result of the analysis, identifies the crises outcomes resulting from these impacts. These are considered over time, and within and between different population groups, across different geographical areas.
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Source: acapa, November, 2020.